Ghost Pike Bike Hike
Spell-binding peddle along the Pennsylvania Turnpike’s
abandoned Rays-Sideling Hill Remnant
part of a magic motorway that was the epitome of
modernity and the envy of the Free World, these
abandoned Pennsylvania Turnpike tunnels are now the
haunt of lost souls and Satan worshipers…
…And we are going to
bike through them!
You can too (if you
and Transportation Required.
This Geography of
Pennsylvania class trip is being run by Dr.
Kevin Patrick. See him for details at Leonard 1-B.
caravan of vehicles (loaded with bikes) will
assemble, and leave from
the HUB lot at 8:00am Sunday September 7, and return
about 6:00pm. We will be making a few short stops for
geographic interpretation en route to the Pennsylvania
Turnpike’s abandoned Rays-Sideling Hill remnant located
in Fulton County. The bike hike is a total of about 20
miles (10 miles up and back) on crumbling, but still
good, pavement. Bike lights are recommended.
Fields: Indiana, PA to Allegheny Ridge
drive from Indiana, Pennsylvania to the abandoned
Pennsylvania Turnpike Rays-Sideling Hill remnant will
cross terrain emblematic of two major physiographic
provinces. The route from Indiana to the Allegheny Front
east of Cresson crosses the hilly topography of the
stream dissected Allegheny Plateau (part of the larger
Appalachian Plateau). In addition to several steep-sided
stream valleys, the route crosses the flattened northern
snouts of to anticlinal ridges. The first is Chestnut
Ridge crossed just east of Indiana, and the second is
Laurel Ridge crossed just west of Ebensburg. All of the
surface rocks along this stretch are Pennsylvanian age,
and include shales and sandstones. This part of the
plateau’s bituminous coal fields contains seams from the
lower Pennsylvanian Allegheny Group, including the
productive Upper Freeport and Lower Kittanning coals.
Evidence of coal mining is apparent in several reclaimed
strip mines along the road, and in the coal patch
communities of Colver and Revloc. Colver was developed
by eastern capitalist’s B. Dawson Coleman, and John
Heisley Weaver in 1911, the town’s name being a
combination of their names. Coleman and Weaver opened
Revloc five years later, naming it as the reverse of
Colver. Coal mining is also implicated in the
co-generation power plant at Ebensburg, which once had a
captive mine, but now runs reclaimed boney pile coal
from Revloc, Ernest, and in the future Lucernemines.
Physiographic provinces across our path between Indiana and Fulton
geology between Indiana and Fulton counties.
communities of Colver,
Revloc, and the Cambria County seat of Ebensburg.
County boney pile on the edge of Nanty-Glo.
Cresson to Hollidaysburg
Front is the eastern edge of the Allegheny Plateau, and
the physiographic province boundary between the
Appalachian Plateau and the Appalachian Ridge and
Valley. The descent on US 22 crosses from the
Pennsylvanian age rocks at the top of the plateau
through the older Mississippian rocks to the Devonian
rocks of the valley. Towards the top of the slope,
Pottsville sandstone is the resistant rock layer that
marks the bottom of Pennsylvanian age rocks. Farther
down is the Mississippian age Burgoon/Pocono sandstone.
These two resistant ridge and ledge-forming
sandstone/conglomerate stratum always mark the edge of
Pennsylvania’s coal basins.
The Devonian shales of Logan Valley,
within which Altoona and Hollidaysburg sit, are less
resistant and therefore more easily eroded than the hard
sandstones and quartzites of the bordering ridges. Not
all of the rocks of the valley are weak, however. Our
first stop will be at the I-99 overlook on Catfish
Ridge, which is a secondary ridge (i.e. not as large as
the main ridges of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley) of
Devonian Ridgeley sandstone that affords a great view of
the Allegheny Front to the west.
Rock fall from the Mississippian age Pocono sandstone
along US Route 22, Allegheny Front, Pennsylvania
Front from Catfish Ridge showing Bald Knob (left), Blair
Gap (center), and Sugar Run Gap (right)
Dry Gap, a
wind gap separating Loop and Short mountains (left), and
McKee Gap, a water gap farther south separating Short
and Dunning mountains (right). The bare patches on the
mountain are Silurian Tuscarora quartzite talus screes.
A wind gap/water gap pairing on the northwest side of
Cove Anticline: McKee Gap to Loysburg Gap
boulder talus marks the slopes of Short Mountain
southeast of Catfish Ridge. Commonly found throughout
the Appalachian Ridge and Valley, these talus slopes are
the signature of Silurian Tuscarora quartzite, a
resistant rock that holds up many of the ridges in
central Pennsylvania. Short Mountain stands between
another common feature of the Appalachian Ridge and
Valley, a wind gap-water gap pairing. To the north is
Dry Gap, a wind gap formed by a stream that once crossed
the ridge here. That stream was subsequently pirated by
the headward erosion of the Juniata River’s Frankstown
Branch and its tributaries, and now the water drains
through McKee Gap to the south.
Passing through McKee Gap on
PA Route 36, an outcropping of Ridgeley sandstone is
visible, but the bulk of the ridge is held up by the
Tuscarora quartzite. The limestone quarry beyond the gap
marks the gateway to Morrison Cove, a classic anticlinal
limestone valley (part of the Nittany Anticlinorium)
underlain by Ordovician age carbonate rocks. The
limestone’s susceptibility to chemical weathering (the
dissolution of rock’s calcium carbonate by slightly
acidic water) results in a karst topography of sink
holes, caves, and springs. The largest spring in the
valley is Roaring Spring where water flowing beneath
Morrison Cove rises to the surface before flowing out
through McKee Gap, bringing a large supply of clean
water to the Appleton Paper's Spring Mill that operates
Turnpike bike peddlers stop at Roaring Spring.
Geologic Map of Blair County, Pennsylvania, 1878
The geologic nomenclature has changed somewhat since
1878. Pottsville sandstone and conglomerate is a
Pennsylvanian age strata that is still used, as is the
Mississippian Mauch Chunk shale, Pocono sandstone (known
as Burgoon sandstone in western Pennsylvania), and the
Devonian Catskill formation. Devonian Oriskany sandstone
is generally recognized as the Ridgeley sandstone now,
and Silurian Tuscarora quartzite shows up on this map as
part of the Medina and Oneida sandstones. The Ordovician
Trenton limestone exposed in Morrison Cove is a rock
package that is now recognized as having numerous
limestone layers, including the cave-containing Nealmont-Benner
limestones of Morrison Cove breakdown into a great
agricultural soil, which provides the foundation for the
dairy farms that cover the valley floor. The cropping
patterns are dominated by corn, used primarily as silage
to feed the cows, and alfalfa, grown as a nitrogen fixer
in rotation with the corn. Each farm is functionally
centered on a Pennsylvania bank barn paired with a
grouping of silos. Mirroring the geology, the favored
stone used in vernacular barn foundations and farm
houses is locally quarried grayish white limestone.
Extending east from Waterside, Hipple Cave Road gets its
name form a closed show cave that once operated from
1928 to about 1940. A subterranean stream flows through
the cave, which formed in Ordovician Nealmont/Benner
limestone, a common cave-former in central Pennsylvania.
The arrival of reliable automobiles and paved roads
caused many karst country caves to be commercially
developed during the 1920s and early 1930s. The Great
Depression and World War II-induced travel restrictions,
however, caused many small, remotely located caves like
Hipple to close in the 1930s and early 1940s.
Dairy farms in Morrison County looking east toward
Hipple Cave entrance steps, c.1928 (above left). Hipple
Cave entrance steps, 2008 (above right).
The "Palm Tree" in Hipple Cave c.1928 (below right), and
in 2008 (below left).
surrounding Morrison Cove are all held up by younger
Silurian Tuscarora quartzite, which prior to millions of
years of erosion, arched overhead in a huge anticline.
The ridges are the truncated limbs of this breached
anticline. Morrison Cove’s southern outlet is through
Loysburg Gap, which cleaves Tussey Mountain, and affords
a close-up examination of a Tuscarora quartzite talus
slope. This is a peri-glacial talus slope that formed
during the last glacial advance when a vigorous
freeze-thaw cycle frost-wedged huge blocks of quartzite
from the outcrop farther up the ridge.
quartzite talus slopes in Loysburg Gap of
Tussey Mountain, Bedford County, PA.
Geology of northern Bedford County, 1878, showing the
Ordovician limestones of the Morrison Cove anticlinal
valley, Loysburg Gap through the Silurian Tuscarora
quartzite of Tussey Mountain, and the Pennsylvanian age
semi-bituminous coal basin of the Broad Top Syncline.
Syncline: Tussey Mountain to Sideling Hill
Beyond Loysburg Gap, routes 36 and then 26 follow Yellow
Creek to the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River at
Hopewell. The Devonian rocks return east of Tussey
Mountain, including the valley shales, and the Ridgeley
sandstone, which makes up the secondary Warrior Ridge
which parallels Route 26 to the east, running southward
toward Everett. More noticeable is the Mississippian age
Pocono sandstone of River Mountain visible in the
outcrops closer to Hopewell. With the reappearance of
the Pocono sandstone, the Pottsville sandstone can not
be far away, nor the Pennsylvanian coal seams beyond.
This is the edge of the Broad Top Syncline, a patch of
Pennsylvanian age rocks in the south central part of the
state that contains semi-bituminous coal seams. The
Broad Top is virtually surrounded by the double ridge
barrier created by the dual outcropping of Pocono
sandstone and Pottsville sandstone. The intervening
valley, which at Hopewell is drained by the Raystown
Branch of the Juniata River, is underlain by soft shale
of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk red beds.
East of Hopewell, Route 915
climbs to the Pottsville sandstone summit of Broad Top
Mountain and crosses the southern tip of the Broad Top
coal field. A few miles farther, the road drops over the
crest of Timber Mountain, the upturned eastern edge of
the Broad Top plateau. The road descends into Sherman
Valley and back on to the Mississippian Mauch Chunk red
beds around Wells Tannery before climbing up the dip
slope of Sideling Hill where the Pocono sandstone
returns to the surface on the eastern edge of the Broad
View north across Sherman Valley (Mississippian Mauch
Chunk shale) toward Broad Top Mountain (Pottsville
sandstone), (above left). View south across Sherman
Valley toward Rays Hill (Mississippian Pocono
sandstone/conglomerate), (above right).
Broad Top coal miners pose at the tipple.
Aaron K. sitting on a block of Pocono sandstone at the
top of Sideling Hill, overlooking Clear Valley west
toward Rays Hill where the synclinal Pocono sandstone
outcrops again. The Pottsville sandstone supported Broad
Top Mountain is in the background right.
The Forbes Road crossed Sideling and Rays hills at this
location. Hacked out of the Pennsylvania wilderness in
1758, the Forbes Road was built during the French and
Indian War to take General John Forbes’ British Army
across the mountains from Philadelphia to attack French
Fort Duquesne built at the Forks of the Ohio, the future
location of Pittsburgh. Forbes’ protected advance relied
on forts constructed along the way that after the war
became the settlements of Ft. Loudon, Ft. Littleton,
Bedford, and Ligonier. In the face of Forbes approaching
army, the French vacated Fort Duquesne. This success was
a critical step in Great Britain’s ultimate victory five
years later, securing its hold over North America.
Forbes Road switch-backed
down the east slope of Sideling Hill at the approximate
location of the Pennsylvania Turnpike’s Rays-Sideling
Hill Bypass. The 13-mile bypass was built over the tops
of Sideling and Rays hills in 1968. This was part of a
five-year program to bypass or dual all seven of the
turnpike’s original two-lane tunnels. The Rays-Sideling
Hill Bypass was constructed to sidestep the segment that
included the Sideling Hill and Rays Hill tunnels, the
longest and shortest tunnels on the turnpike. The
realignment inadvertently preserved a turnpike remnant
in its original 1940 configuration, although its most
recent 40-year un-maintained exposure to time, weather,
and vandals has given it a post-apocalyptic appearance.
At the beginning of the French and Indian War, British
General Edward Braddock carved out "Braddock's Road"
from Virginia on his disastrous 1755 advance on French
Fort Duquesne. General John Forbes cut "Forbes Road" on
his protected advance in 1758 that chased the French
from the Forks of the Ohio.
This map shows the Forbes Road (1758),
the Lincoln Highway (1913), the original Pennsylvania
Turnpike (1940), and the turnpike's Rays-Sideling Hill
Bypass (1968) crossing the southern end of the Broad Top
Syncline between Sideling Hill and Rays Hill.
Pennsylvania Turnpike’s Rays-Sideling
Our ghost pike
bike hike begins on reddish-brown Devonian shales a mile
east of the Sideling Hill Tunnel. The entire segment
crosses a southern extension of the Broad Top syncline,
which is so narrow that it only includes the
Mississippian age rocks. Sideling Hill is held up by
Pocono sandstone, which dips down beneath the
intervening valley, re-surfacing four miles west where
the turnpike again punches through the Pocono sandstone
with the Rays Hill Tunnel. The four mile Clear Valley
segment that stretches between the tunnels skirts the
same Mauch Chunk red beds crossed at Wells Tannery. The
forested slope to the south is the closed end of the
plunging syncline which forms the narrow plateau of
Pocono sandstone between the Sideling and Rays hills
crests. The turnpike’s current alignment spans this
plateau after crossing over the top of the Sideling Hill
The original Pennsylvania
Turnpike was a Depression make-work project laid out
between Irwin, just east of Pittsburgh, and Middlesex,
just west of Harrisburg. Opened at midnight October 1,
1940 as America’s first long-distance, limited-access
highway, the turnpike’s alignment followed the
right-of-way built for the South Penn Railroad in
1884-1885. The South Penn was the New York Central’s
attempt to compete with the Pennsylvania Railroad’s Main
Line. It was planned in response to the Pennsylvania
Railroad’s backing of the West Shore Railroad, a line
built parallel to the New York Central’s main line
across New York. Incensed that this expensive,
cut-throat competition between the nation’s two largest
railroads was bad for business, financier J. P. Morgan
insisted that the two railroads settle their differences
and get out of each other’s home territory. As a result,
work on the South Penn Railroad was abruptly terminated
with 60% of the right-of-way and 4.5 miles of tunnels
completed. Turnpike construction a half century later
obliterated much of the South Penn’s right of way but
remnants still exist, including fill in the vicinity of
This c.1950 postcard shows the original seven
Pennsylvania Turnpike Tunnels. East to west they were:
1) Laurel Hill, 2) Allegheny, 3) Rays Hill, 4) Sideling Hill,
5) Tuscarora, 6) Kittatinny, and 7) Blue Mountain. The Laurel
Hill Bypass opened in 1964, and the Rays-Sideling Hill
Bypass in 1968, the same year the dual bores for the
remaining five tunnels were completed.
Pike peddlers mount up on the abandoned turnpike east of
Generalized geologic cross section along the Forbes
Road; Cumberland Valley to Friends Cove.
Howard Johnson's counter at the Cove Valley Service
Plaza (above left). Only the parking lot remains of the
Cove Valley Service Plaza today (above right). Stranded
on the abandoned stretch of turnpike, Cove Valley was
replaced by the Sideling Hill Service Plaza built along
the Rays-Sideling Hill Bypass.
Hill Tunnel, East Portal
Google image showing the old turnpike disappearing into
Sideling Hill, and passing beneath the turnpike's
Rays-Sideling Hill Bypass and PA Route 915.
portal of the Sideling Hill Tunnel.
Fill built for the South Penn Railroad in 1885 using
debris excavated from the eastern portal of the Sideling
Hill tunnel. The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission
planted the unused right-of-way in pine trees as part of
the original turnpike landscaping in 1940.
South Penn Railroad map, 1885 (click for larger view).
Sideling Hill Tunnel east portal fan house with
Inbound through the longest tunnel on the Pennsylvania
Turnpike system; 6,782 feet, more than a mile of
Hill Tunnel, West Portal
Pennsylvania Turnpike Tunnel interior, c.1940
Tunnel graffiti from the local stoners and punks.
KJP at the west portal, Sideling Hill Tunnel
The westward dipping Pocono sandstone abuts against the
west portal of the Sideling Hill Tunnel where maybe
there is an enclave of French with a long-standing
grudge against General Forbes' successful 1758 campaign.
After abandonment, the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission
(PTC) used the Rays-Sideling Hill remnant to train snow
plow drivers, test paint, road reflectors, and rumble
strips, and to store jersey barriers. The 12-mile long
superhighway, however, was primarily a crumbling
liability the PTC eventually wanted to shed. In 2001,
PTC turned it over to the Southern Alleghenies
Conservancy, which has plans to use it as part of
BicyclePA's Route S.
Route S is a 435 mile long bike trail marked out over
lesser used roads that crosses the southern part of
Pennsylvania from Washington County on the West Virginia
border to Washington Crossing on the Delaware River. As
with the pack horse trains, military equipment,
Conestoga wagons, and automobiles that came before
trans-state recreational biker riders, Rays and Sideling
hills presents a difficult terrain challenge that can be
mitigated using the turnpike's abandoned tunnels. The
"Pike 2 Bike" path is still in its raw state and
officially closed, so bikers travel at their own risk.
Motorized vehicles are strictly prohibited and subject
to heavy fines.
Recently, the abandoned turnpike has been put to use as
stand-in scenery representing a post-apocalyptic America
in the movie version of Cormac McCarthy's book,
due to premier in November, 2008. Here a group of
sad-looking survivors troop out of the east portal of
the Rays Hill Tunnel.
Mark Rice on the long grade following the Pocono
sandstone dip west to Rays Hill Tunnel.
Although several bridges have recently been removed from
the abandoned turnpike, two overpasses remain. Both have
railings that reflect the stripped down streamline
Moderne detailing that was built into the turnpike's
Hill Tunnel, East Portal
This 1885 photo shows the South Penn Railroad crew
digging the Rays Hill Tunnel (above left). The South
Penn did work on all nine tunnels planned for the New
York Central-backed railroad across southern
Pennsylvania, but none of them were holed through before
work was suspended. Fifty years later, highway engineers
redesigned and completed six of the South Penn's tunnels
for the Pennsylvania Turnpike. Road cuts replaced the
South Penn's Negro Mountain and Quemahoning tunnels, and
the Allegheny Tunnel was found to be structurally
unsound, requiring the turnpike to bore a new tube 85
feet to the south. Rays Hill Tunnel seen soon after its
1940 completion (above right).
The Raykes family with the crew at the east portal of
the Rays Hill Tunnel.
The 3,532-foot long Rays Hill Tunnel was the shortest on
the turnpike system. So short, in fact, that tunnel
engineers concluded it could be ventilated with only one
fan house, rather than the two fan houses that
ventilated every other tunnel from each portal. With the
Rays Hill Tunnel fan house over the west portal, the fan
house-less east portal was unique among the turnpike
Pike peddlers at the post-apocalyptic Rays Hill Tunnel.
Hill Tunnel, West Portal
Google image showing the old turnpike disappearing
beneath Rays Hill, just north of the turnpike's
Rays-Sideling Hill Bypass and US Route 30 (Lincoln
Light at the west end of the Rays Hill Tunnel.
Highway Hole to Hell.
Rice and Wicker at the Rays Hill tunnel's west portal.
A culvert built from Pocono sandstone taken from the
South Penn's Rays Hill Tunnel in 1884-85 to channel
water beneath the railroad right-of-way.
on the Haunted Ghost Pike.
In a postmodern heritage economy ghosts follows
tourists. Approximately two dozen men lost their lives
building the original turnpike, including four workers
killed in a cave-in at the Laurel Hill Tunnel. Their
ghosts are not known to have haunted the turnpike
tunnels -yet. A threshold number of outside visitors
have yet to arrive to the derelict-turnpike laced hills
of central Pennsylvania to conjure up the ghost stories
new millennium tourist likes to use to enhance place
meaning. The dead are already doing double-duty
entertaining haunted tour goers at Gettysburg, New
Orleans, countless New England inns, and any number of
restored theaters and bed & breakfasts. Should the
tourist economy demand it, however, spirits may yet
drift back to haunt a new and improved and widely
marketed abandoned turnpike tunnel attraction now oddly
absent of ghosts in its current, truly creepy condition.
When they do, the hauntings are likely to share the
supernatural scene with the Pennsylvania Sascwatch
responsible for the death of what appears to be mutated
humans -or man-bear pig- the remains of which our pike
peddling crew found in a turnpike ravine most probably
used for Satanic rituals (above).
Breezewood victory celebration for peddlers about to
start their return trip on the 20-mile pike bike hike.
Remounting the abandoned Pennsylvania Turnpike at the
recently removed bridge over US Route 30 east of
Pounding pavement on the return trip.
View east from the top of Rays Hill looking along the
Pennsylvania Turnpike's Rays-Sideling Hill Bypass toward
Sideling Hill. The abandoned turnpike is discernable
curving around the right side of the lake in the
synclinal Clear Valley.
Bill's Place was a locally famous ridge-top one-stop
offering gas, food, and lodging to travelers on the old
Lincoln Highway at the top of Rays Hill. The business
lasted until 1968 when it was demolished for the massive
road cut that now carries the Pennsylvania Turnpike's
Rays-Sideling Hill Bypass over the crest of the ridge.
Nearly three century’s worth of trans-Appalachian
transportation routes have crossed Pennsylvania in the
vicinity of the Pennsylvania Turnpike’s Rays-Sideling
Hill Bypass. This has nothing to do with these two
ridges, which have always been a difficult impediment to
overland transportation, but to twin water gaps that
provide a low-grade route through two ridges farther
west. The Raystown Branch of the Juniata River has taken
advantage of an east-west fault that runs across Evitts
and Tussey mountains, eroding water gaps through both
ridges. Bedford Narrows through Evitts Mountain just
east of Bedford, and Aliquippa Gap through Tussey
Mountain just west of Everett are natural gateways west
that eliminate the need to climb over two additional
Appalachian ridges. In succession, the Raystown Indian
trading path, Forbes Road, Pennsylvania emigrant road,
early auto Lincoln Highway, US Route 30, and the
Pennsylvania Turnpike were all routed over (or through)
Rays and Sideling hills to align their routes to these
The Devonian rocks east of
Sideling Hill dip beneath the Broad Top Syncline and
return to the surface west of Rays Hill. This includes
the Ridgeley sandstone which forms a secondary ridge
that runs just east of Everett. Tussey and Evitts
mountains are truncated limbs of Silurian Tuscarora
quartzite that once arced up into an anticline between
Everett and Bedford. Over time, the anticline was
breeched by the forces of erosion exposing the same
Ordovician limestones exposed in Morrison Cove, and
laying the foundation for a similar landscape of dairy
farms and limestone quarries. This anticlinal valley is
known as Friends Cove after the Quakers who settled
here. Even older Cambrian limestones are exposed at its
core. The Tuscarora quartzite exposed on the east side
of Aliquippa Gap is exposed again on the west side of
Made from the Devonian rocks that outcrop nearby, the
Juniata Crossings Inn dates to the 1818 completion of
the Pennsylvania Road, the state's first
trans-Appalachian turnpike -or more accurately, series
of end to end turnpikes. The inn was constructed where
the turnpike crossed the Raystown Branch of the Juniata
River west of Breezewood. In 1913, the old turnpike
became part of the Lincoln Highway, marked out over
pre-existing roads from New York City to San Francisco
as the country's first transcontinental automobile road.
Bedford County Geology, 1878
View west through Aliquippa Gap from the Juniata Valley
toward Evitts and Wills mountains (above left). View
west through Bedford Narrows from Friends Cove (above
Generalized geologic cross section along the Forbes
Road; Aliquippa Gap to Laurel Hill.
Valley Syncline, and the Wills Mountain Anticline
General Forbes built Ft. Bedford as a staging base for
his advance on Ft. Duquesne at a place that controlled
access to the Narrows and allowed for easy communication
south through Cumberland Valley to British Ft.
Cumberland. Bedford sits in a narrow syncline between
Evitts and Wills mountains where Silurian and Devonian
age limestones surface. These limestones reappear on the
west side of the Wills Mountain anticline where Coral
Caverns has operated as a show cave near Manns Choice
since 1932. The path north along I-99 follows the west
slope of Dunning Mountain, a Silurian Tuscarora
quartzite ridge mined for of its silica to make bricks.
The view west is over the younger Devonian shales of the
valley towards the Allegheny Front marking the eastern
edge of the Appalachian Plateau. At 3,120 feet above sea
level, Blue Knob is the highest point along
Pennsylvania’s Allegheny Front. Only 93 feet lower than
Mt. Davis, it is the second highest peak in
Not to be confused with the Cumberland Valley section of
the Great Valley, Bedford County's Cumberland Valley
(above left) is a synclinal trough between Evitts and
Wills mountains that extends north-south from Bedford to
Cumberland, Maryland. Cave-forming Devonian Helderberg
and Silurian Keyser limestones (part of Lewsitown
limestone on the 1878 maps) outcrop in this valley, and
along the west side of Wills Mountain. Unlike the
Ordovician Nealmont-Benner caves, Pennsylvania caves
forming in the Helderburg-Keyser were not as likely to
have large, natural openings. Workers at a limestone
quarry near Manns Choice broke into Coral Caverns in
1928. Well decorated with speleothems, and containing a
unique coral reef wall, the cave was commercialized and
opened as Wonderland Coral Caverns in 1932. Lincoln
Caverns near Huntingdon is Pennsylvania's other famous
Devonian show cave. Road builders constructing a new
alignment for the William Penn Highway (US 22) broke
into Lincoln Caverns in 1930. It was developed and
opened as a tourist attraction a year later.
Ghost Pike Bike Hikers at the top of Rays Hill.
View west into the setting sun from Rays Hill, taking in
the Devonian Juniata Valley towards Aliquippa Gap
through Tussey Mountain.